CSF and serum specimens were consecutively obtained from three patients with neuroborreliosis (stage I, II and III), CSF protein content, cell counts and differential, IgG index, oligoclonal bands and anti-B. burgdorferi antibodies were measured. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was tested for Borrelia-DNA being present prior to and after antibiotic treatment. While DNA could be identified before ceftriaxone was administered, there were no more amplification products afterwards. The goal of this study was to compare the usefulness of serodiagnostic methods and the detection of Borrelia burgdorferi-DNA in patients with clinically confirmed neuroborreliosis to test the efficiency of antibiotic therapy.