The local pattern of proinflammatory cytokine release was studied in Alzheimer disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VAD), by measuring intrathecal levels of IL-1 beta, IL-6, TNF-alpha, and its naturally occurring antagonists, soluble TNF receptors I and II. The cytokine levels were related to neuronal damage, as measured by the intrathecal tau concentration, to cerebral apoptosis assessed by levels of Fas/APO-1 and bcl-2, and to clinical variables.
In vitro analysis was performed to study the effect of TNF-alpha on the production of bcl-2, an antiapoptotic factor, by human neuronal cells. Patients with both AD and VAD displayed significantly higher intrathecal levels of TNF-alpha compared to controls. In addition, patients with AD showed significantly negative correlations between the intrathecal levels of TNF-alpha and the levels of Fas/APO-1 as well as of tau protein. The level of bcl-2 in supernatants of TNF-alpha-exposed cultures of human neuronal cells was up to three times higher than in control supernatants.
Our study demonstrates intrathecal production of TNF-alpha in patients with dementias, suggesting that this cytokine may have a neuroprotective role in these neurodegenerative conditions as evidenced by negative correlations between this cytokine and (i) levels of intrathecal Fas/APO-1 and (ii) levels of tau protein, both parameters closely related to brain damage. Our in vitro data suggest that TNF-alpha exerts its neuroprotective effect by stimulating neuronal cells to express bcl-2, a molecule which downregulates apoptosis.
Source: J Clin Immunol 1999 Jul;19(4):223-30
PMID: 10471976, UI: 99401196
(Department of Rheumatology, University of Goteborg, Sweden.)