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In the present study, we report sICAM-1 concentration in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum of patients with neuroborreliosis (NB, n = 11), compared to the data from a control group of patients with corresponding blood/CSF barrier dysfunction but without inflammation in the central nervous system (disc prolaps, DP, n = 11). In NB, the sICAM-1 concentration in CSF was increased up to six-fold (ranges: 6.6-42.8 ng/ml and 2.2-9.8 ng/ml for NB and DP respectively) with no change in serum sICAM-1. The corresponding sICAM-1 CSF/serum concentration quotients (Q(ICAM)) were in the ranges: 22.5-171.3 X 10(-3), and 8.8-27.8 X 10(-3) for NB and DP respectively. This finding can be explained by increase of the brain-derived fraction of sICAM-1 in NB. In one case we observed increased Q(ICAM) on 6th day after admission to the hospital (171.3 X 10(-3) at the time of the first lumbar puncture slightly increasing to 243.6 x 10(-3) five days later), followed by normalization, in two remaining repunctured patients we observed decreasing QICAM with normalizing Q(Alb).