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Despite that the whole genome of T. pallidum, the causative agent of syphilis, has been sequenced, syphilis is, and will remain for some time, diagnosed by direct clinical observation and by laboratory methods. This review presents comprehensively most of the practical techniques used for direct detection of T. pallidum and lists all practical methods for phospholipid and treponemal antibodies detection. It describes most novel tests for syphilis, discusses problems with sero-creossreactivity in
Lyme disease, immune responses in HIV-syphilis coinfected patients, and reviews serologic responses to antibiotic treatment.