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Lyme borreliosis in childhood is a tick-borne
disease that includes a variety of clinical symptoms in different organs. Most frequently dermatological manifestations such as erythema migrans and borrelial lymphocytoma are observed. Uni- or bilateral peripheral facial palsy and meningitis with lymphocytic pleocytosis represent typical symptoms of neuroborreliosis.
Lyme arthritis occurs as an acute or chronic manifestation that should only be diagnosed after careful consideration of other causes of arthritis in childhood. After clinical and/or laboratory diagnosis of
Lyme borreliosis, systemic antibiotic treatment should be initiated. Oral treatment with amoxicillin can be recommended for the treatment of erythema migrans and borrelial lymphocytoma. In contrast, the intravenous administration of 3rd generation cephalosporins is indicated for all generalized manifestations including facial palsy, meningitis, arthritis or involvement of other organ systems.
Lyme borreliosis in childhood is characterized by a good prognosis. At the present time, many efforts are given to the development of vaccines using subunits of the different genospecies of Borrelia burgdorferi. First clinical trials with
Lyme borreliosis vaccines have been started.