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A case report is presented of a 55-year-old patient diagnosed with a demyelinating
disease of unclear etiology. The patient had
Lyme borreliosis in 2004. Specific IgG antibodies against B. burgdorferi s. l. were detected in the serum. Intrathecal antibodies were not found in the cerebrospinal fluid, but the presence of B. garinii DNA was confirmed by PCR analysis. It can be hypothesized that the borrelial persistence in the body may have been one of the triggers of the autoimmune process resulting in demyelination of the central nervous system (CNS).