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Lyme Borreliosis may lead to a wide variety of sequels. Besides symptoms involving skin, joints and heart the infection provokes as a neurologic complication a meningopolyneuritis Garin-Bujadoux-Bannwarth in second state and a progressive encephalomyelitis in third state. Unexpected widespread–as modern laboratory investigations proved–the contamination only occasionally inflicts clinical manifestations. Involvement of the nervous system is substantiated by the demonstration of endogenous Borrelia antibodies in the cerebrospinal fluid. This prove is to claim especially for the assumption of a third state neuroborreliosis with progressive encephalomyelitis. Severe damage can be prevented by prompt diagnosis, specific treatment and follow-up.