Lyme borreliosis is the most common
disease communicated by ticks and especially affects the skin, nervous system, joints, and heart. It is caused by at least four species of the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi. The various pathologies are classified as early forms (erythema migrans, borrelia lymphocytom, early neuroborreliosis, carditis) or late forms (arthritis, acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans, chronic neuroborreliosis). The accuracy of serodiagnosis is 20-50% with erythema migrans, 70-90% with early neuroborreliosis, and nearly 100% with
Lyme arthritis. Following special indications, the agent is confirmed by skin biopsy or spinal or joint puncture. Oral therapy is performed with amoxicillin, doxycycline, and cefuroxime, and intravenous therapy uses ceftriaxone, cefotaxime, or penicillin G. All in all, the prognosis of treated
Lyme borreliosis is good. In childhood permanent defects are extremely rare, even following long-term manifestation at an early age.