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Five commercial Borrelia serology kits available in Sweden were evaluated and compared for their diagnostic performance in sera from clinically well-characterized patient groups. With the clinically defined groups as the gold standard, i.e. without knowledge of antibody status in serum and cerebrospinal fluid, the diagnostic performance of the kits was compared and important differences in diagnostic usefulness were found. The kits from Abbot and DAKO, that often predict clinically relevant Borrelia infection and do not detect antibodies in sera from patients without strong suspicion of Borrelia infection, were considered the most useful in the population studied. This kind of validation study is an important part of good laboratory practice and should be performed by laboratories serving patient populations with varying endemicity of Borrelia.