Lyme disease, or
Lyme borreliosis, is the most prevalent vector-borne illness in the United States of America and Europe. In the Netherlands, the
disease is endemic with an estimated yearly incidence of 133 cases per 100.000 inhabitants.
Lyme disease is caused by spirochetes of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and transmitted by Ixodes ticks. Diagnosing the different manifestations of
Lyme disease is based on a history of possible exposure to ticks, the appearance of specific clinical symptoms, exclusion of other causes of the symptoms, whether or not combined with serological or other diagnostics tests. Antibiotics are effective in all
Lyme disease manifestations and, generally, patients have a good prognosis.