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LB is a multisystem illness caused by the spirochete B. burgdorferi. As with other spirochetal diseases, LB evolves in stages. Some manifestations are the result of persistent infection, whereas other symptoms are a consequence of immunologic changes secondary to the infection. Most
disease manifestations are not specific to this illness. In addition, in endemic areas, almost 100% of the tick vector, the Ixodes species, are infected and the incidence rate of LB is as high as 1%. Because of these factors, the illness is overdiagnosed and overtreated. We have reviewed the current state of diagnosis and treatment of LB as well as questions that arise during the management of this illness.