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Lyme disease is a spirochetal infection endemic throughout New Jersey. Case reports from 1984 through 1986 suggest different high-risk groups and different
disease severity than had been observed in earlier cases in the state. Both sexes now appear equally at risk, while younger age groups, particularly children less than ten years old, appear to be at increased risk. Mild
disease is usual, although classic rheumatologic and neurologic complications can occur. Informal surveys suggest
Lyme disease is under-reported by a factor of five- to tenfold in New Jersey. Early recognition by physician and patient is necessary for prompt treatment to reduce complications.