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We report herein the first laboratory-diagnosed case of
Lyme disease in a human in Taiwan. A 45-year-old Taiwanese man living in Taipei, in northern Taiwan, had an expanding skin lesion (measuring 23 by 15 cm) on his abdomen for 2 to 3 weeks and recurrent attacks of pain and swelling of the knee joint. Serologic tests indicated a significantly elevated titer of antibody to Borrelia burgdorferi. After appropriate antibiotic treatment for 3 weeks, the skin lesion was cured and the joint swelling was improved. Although several strains of Borrelia spirochetes had been isolated from rodents (Rattus losea) in Taiwan, the tick vector responsible for the transmission remains to be identified.