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Lyme disease (borreliosis) is a systemic illness resulting from infection with the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi. It is transmitted to humans by the bites of infected ticks belonging to several species of the genus Ixodes. After the bacteria enter the body via the dermis, most patients develop the early, localised form of
Lyme disease, which is characterised by erythema migrans and influenza-like symptoms. This
disease may also affect the heart, nervous system and joints. The neurological findings of this
disease may include peripheral and central nervous system signs. A 21-year-old woman attended a family medicine outpatient clinic complaining of unexplained pain and muscle power loss in her lower extremities. The problem had started in her right leg 3 months earlier and worsened in the last week. She had a neurology consultation and was hospitalised. Her neurological examination revealed bilateral facial paralysis and sensory impairment. Immunoglobulin M antibody to B. burgdorferi was positive on Western blotting in both serum and cerebrospinal fluid. The patient was diagnosed with subacute neuroborreliosis and treated.