Rheum Dis Clin North Am 2002 May;28(2):353-65 Moldofsky H. Sleep Disorders Clinic of the Centre for Sleep and Chronobiology, 340 College Street, Suite 580, Toronto, ON M5T 3A9, Canada. mailto:email@example.com PMID: 12122923
In summary, the treatment of patients with fibromyalgia (FM) requires a proper assessment of the reason for the unrefreshing sleep, which is an important component of the FM syndrome.
Sleep laboratory investigations provides a suitable rationale for management where a specific primary sleep disorder is determined. Nonspecific treatments include various behavioral approaches to improve sleep hygiene, fitness, and regular proper nutrition that serve to regularize disturbances in circadian sleep-wake rhythms.
As yet, no medication is known to improve the EEG sleep arousal disorders that include phasic (alpha-delta), tonic alpha non-REM sleep disorders, or the periodic K alpha cycling alternating pattern disorder.
Traditional hypnotic agents, while helpful in initiating and maintaining sleep and reducing daytime tiredness, do not provide restorative sleep or reduce pain. Tricyclic drugs, such as amitriptyline and cyclobenzaprine, may provide long term benefit for improving sleep but may not have a continuing benefit beyond one month for reducing pain.
The use of a biologic agent that facilitates sleep-related neuroendocrine functions, for example growth hormone, is reported to improve symptoms but the need for injection and high cost restrict its use.
No systematic studies have been reported on the use of remedial measures for the management of PLMS/restless legs syndrome and sleep apnea that occur in some patients with FM.