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Using the polymerase chain reaction and sequence-specific oligonucleotide probes, we have determined the distribution of the alleles at the polymorphic class II loci, DRB1, DQA1, DQB1, and DPB1 in 25 patients with
Lyme arthritis. Comparison of the frequencies of the DRB1 and DPB1 alleles in
Lyme arthritis patients to the Centre d’Etude du Polymorphisme Humaine control panel revealed statistically significant differences between the two groups. An increase in DRB1*1301 is noted along with a unique distribution of the DR4 subtypes within the 9 DR4+ patients. In addition, an increase in the rate DPB1*1001 and the more common DPB1*0201 alleles is reported.