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A great deal of confusion surrounds the diagnosis, clinical phenomenology, and treatment of
Lyme borreliosis. Most diagnostic methods currently in use are indirect and do not differentiate between prior exposure and current infection. A critical review of the literature permits the characterization of a distinct set of neurologic disorders that are almost certainly caused by this infection and their differentiation from the plethora of syndromes that have been anecdotally linked to infection, but in which causality has never been established. This article describes the range of clinical disorders associated with
Lyme borreliosis, provides an overview of current approaches to diagnosis, and reviews current treatment protocols.