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Between September 1986 and November 1988, 17 patients were hospitalized and treated for neuro-borreliosis. Ten of them had been admitted with suspected lumbar or cervical root or compression syndrome. Only four patients recalled a tick bite, only three an erythema migrans. Uni- or bilateral facial paresis was a prominent feature in six patients. Three of 14 patients had no IgG antibodies against Borrelia, either in serum or cerebrospinal fluid at the initial examination, two had positive titres in serum only. Despite antibiotic treatment (usually 10 mega U penicillin three times daily) six patients had a recurrence by April, 1989, treated with penicillin again or with twice daily 100 mg doxycycline or 2 g ceftriaxon. In four of them a residual painful polyneuropathy remains.