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Many different neurological conditions may be seen in the later stages of
Disease, such as blindness, epileptic crises, CVA, extrapyramidal disorders, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and dementia may be yet another form of presentation of chronic infection due to Borrelia burgdorferi (Bb). Progressive Supranuclear Paralysis (PSP), a disorder of unknown aetiology, considered to be the commonest cause of Parkinsonism-plus, one of the symptoms of which is dementia, has never been mentioned in this type of differential diagnosis.
We present the case of a 78 year old man with sub-acute mental deterioration, Bb positive serology in both plasma and CSF, and with clinical and epidemiological features compatible with
Disease. Complementary tests were negative. The syndrome corresponded to
Disease and improved after treatment with ceftriaxona.
We consider aspects of the aetiology of PSP which are still not clear. In our patient, the aetiology seemed to be Bb infection, according to the criteria of the original description of the
disease and in view of the neuropathological findings which have shown Bb in the substancia nigra of the mid-brain and the existence of an animal model in which Bb shows a particular tendency to colonize infratentorial structures.