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Infection with Borrelia sp. is common in Denmark, and dissemination to the central nervous system (neuroborreliosis) may develop in a minority of cases with varying symptoms. We here present a population-based review of neuroborreliosis in Northern Denmark.
MATERIAL AND METHODS:
We identified 84 patients with neuroborreliosis from North Jutland County in the period 1998-2006 based on the demonstration of intrathecal antibody production to B. burgdorferi, and we reviewed the medical records for symptoms, diagnosis, treatment and outcome.
Paresis of the facialis nerve and fever were more common among children than among adults, whereas radiculitis and sensory symptoms were more frequent among adults than among children. Eight of 84 patients (10%) reported only nonneurological symptoms. All patients were treated with antibiotics for at least ten days. Information on outcome was available for 76 patients (90%) of whom 16 (19%) had persistent sequelae after six months. Patients with persistent sequelae had a lower cell count in the cerebrospinal fluid than patients without sequelae. Patients with a diagnostic delay of less than 28 days had less sequelae than patients with a delay longer than 28 days.
Symptoms in neuroborreliosis are heterogeneous, although some symptoms are common in children while others are predominant in adults. Early diagnosis of neuroborreliosis potentially improves the outcome.