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Lyme disease has emerged as a major infection with frequent neurologic manifestations. These manifestations probably reflect several predominantly indirect pathogenetic mechanisms and involve host, vector, and organism factors. With early diagnosis and appropriate antibiotic treatment, patients do well. Because culture is not reliable, diagnosis has relied on positive serology to document exposure. Serology should improve as second-generation assays become available. Although there is a preventive vaccine based on the lipoprotein OspA, newer vaccines in development may prove more desirable.
Lyme disease provides a valuable model to study how infectious pathogens cause neurologic