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Non-antibiotic treatment of
Lyme borreliosis is only indicated in a few specific clinical situations. In chronic
Lyme arthritis, intra-articular steroids are useful to immediately relieve symptomatic joint effusion. Nevertheless, 4 studies with weak methodological evidence were convergent enough to recommend not proposing intra-articular injection before or even immediately after antibiotic treatment. The injection can only be recommended in the treatment of patients whose joint effusion persists despite 2 courses of oral antibiotherapy or one course of IV antibiotherapy. For some experts, the injection can only be made after negative PCR assessment of the joint fluid for spirochetes. This recommendation, although logical, has never been evaluated. Radiation synovectomy may be indicated in persistent synovitis after antibiotherapy and before surgical synovectomy. Further studies are mandatory to confirm the role of radiation synovectomy in the local therapy. Arthroscopic synovectomy can reduce the period of joint inflammation when persistent synovitis is associated with significant pain or limited function. Several experts recommend using the procedure only if synovitis persists after 2 months of antibiotherapy and a negative PCR joint fluid assessment. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are often prescribed for their symptomatic effects. Experimental data is consensual on the deleterious consequences of systemic corticosteroid therapy. Corticosteroids are not indicated in
disease. In post
disease syndrome, patient complaints may lead to a multidisciplinary therapeutic management and the use of neuro-psychiatric drugs.