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Three patients with classical idiopathic polyneuritis cranialis, in whom no other aetiology could be detected, were examined serologically, by means of indirect immunofluorescence test, for antibodies (IgM and IgG) against Borrelia burgdorferi, the aetiologic agent of
Lyme disease. In each case polyneuritis cranialis was caused by infection with Borrelia burgdorferi. Therapy with penicillin proved to be effective.