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The timely facilitation of immunologic (immunoglobulin or vaccine) or antimicrobial prophylaxis is used in individuals who have been exposed to certain infectious diseases. Such methodology has been shown to be helpful in infections such as viral hepatitis types A and B, measles, varicella, rabies, and tuberculosis. The data supporting such use in rubella and mumps are not strong and information is still needed in hepatitis C, human immunodeficiency virus, and
Lyme borreliosis. This article reviews postexposure prophylaxis in these situations. Preventive strategies for meningococcal
disease, group A streptococcus, tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis are discussed elsewhere in this issue.