Due to the high
Lyme borreliosis incidence in Alsace, in northeastern France, we investigated in 2003-2004 three cantons in this region in order to determine the density of Ixodes ricinus ticks infected by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and Anaplasmataceae. The peak density of nymphs infected by B. burgdorferi sensu lato at Munster and Guebwiller, where the
disease incidence was high, was among the highest reported in Europe (105 and 114 per 100 m(2), respectively). In contrast, the peak density of infected nymphs was low in the canton of Dannemarie (5/100 m(2)), where the
disease incidence was low. The two main species detected in ticks were Borrelia afzelii, more frequent in nymphs, and Borrelia garinii, more frequent in adult ticks. The rates of tick infection by Anaplasma phagocytophilum were 0.4% and 1.2% in nymphs and adults, respectively.