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Tick-borne diseases are on the rise.
Lyme borreliosis is prevalent throughout the Northern Hemisphere, and the same Ixodes tick species transmitting the etiologic agents of this
disease also serve as vectors of pathogens causing human babesiosis, human granulocytic anaplasmosis, and tick-borne encephalitis. Recently, several novel agents of rickettsial diseases have been described. Despite an explosion of knowledge in the fields of tick biology, genetics, molecular biology, and immunology, transitional research leading to widely applied public health measures to combat tick-borne diseases has not been successful. Except for the vaccine against tick-borne encephalitis virus, and a brief campaign to reduce this
disease in the former Soviet Union through widespread application of DDT, success stories in the fight against tick-borne diseases are lacking. Both new approaches to tick and pathogen control and novel ways of translating research findings into practical control measures are needed to prevent tick-borne diseases in the twenty-first century.