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Less than 20 years elapsed between the 1982 report of the identification and isolation of Borrelia burgdorferi and the licensure and marketing in the USA of a prophylactic vaccine against this pathogen. However, the manufacturer removed the vaccine from the market under 4 years after its release. The low demand undoubtedly was the result of limited efficacy, need for frequent boosters, the high price of the vaccine, exclusion of children, fear of vaccine-induced musculoskeletal symptoms and litigation surrounding the vaccine. Second-generation polyvalent outer surface protein (Osp)C vaccines may overcome some of these concerns but the precise antigenic components required for efficacy are uncertain. The development of the next generation of
Lyme disease vaccines is in its infancy.