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Diagnosis of intraocular inflammations can be difficult, particularly if the patient is suffering from immunodeficiency. Among the endogenous inflammations this applies mainly to cases of hyaloretinitis caused by Candida or other fungi, often presenting as an acute hyalitis with sudden onset; the various ocular complications of AIDS, especially those due to toxoplasmosis (rare) and cytomegalovirus, and
lyme disease, which can occasionally cause chronic panuveitis. Among the exogenous cases it applies to postoperative and posttraumatic endophthalmitis. In all these cases the diagnosis has to be established clinically if possible, since, as a consequence of the immunodeficiency, serology is hardly helpful, and only biopsy (of the vitreous) may provide additional information. Rapid diagnosis is very important because of the urgent need for therapy.