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We studied sera from patients who had participated in a prospective study of borreliosis in Sweden and had acquired tick bites in areas of the country with a high prevalence of granulocytic ehrlichial infections in animals. The sera were examined for IgG anti Ehrlichia antibodies by an indirect immunofluorescence assay using a locally isolated bovine Ehrlichia antigen. Confirmation of the serological results was done at the Unité des Rickettsies, Marseille, France. Three out of 37 of the investigated patients and 1 out of 100 investigated healthy blood donors had significant antibody titres to granulocytotropic Ehrlichiae. No patient or blood donor had specific antibody titres to Ehrlichia chaffeensis. These data suggest that Scandinavian Ehrlichia species can infect and evoke immunological response in tick-exposed humans.