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Eight genotypes of Borrelia burgdorferi are known currently. In Slovakia (Carpathian Euroregion) the most frequent genotypes are B. garini, B. afzelii, as well as B. valaisiana and B. lusitaniae. Infestation of the vector Ixodes ricinus is 3-30%. The most frequent early skin manifestation is erythema migrans (60-70%). Borrelia burgdorferi is suggested to be the causative agent in sclerodermia circumscripta, lichen sclerosus et atrophicus, maybe also in urticaria chronica, granuloma anulare, erythema anulare, erythema nodosum. It can be the causative agent also in neurological diagnoses as e.g. chronic oligosymptomatic encephalopathy, “sclerosis multiplex-like” syndrome and fatigue syndrome, arthralgia, myalgia, seronegative indifferentiated oligoarthritis and fibromyalgies. The serological diagnosis has to be coincide with clinical findings. Used serological examinations are ELISA, Immunoblot, indirect immunofluorescence examination. PCR is an important contribution in examination of synovial fluid (85% detection) and cerebrospinal liquor (24-100%). The importance of PCR is stressed in cases with mixed infections by several borrrelia genotypes. The first line treatment includes doxyciclin, amoxicilin, and erythromycin. The second line includes macrolides, cephalosporines. New perspectives are ascribed to active immunisation with recombined antigen OsA (LYMErix, ImuLyme).