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A recently developed immunocytochemical antigen-binding sandwich test for the identification of specific activated B lymphocytes was applied to cerebrospinal fluid cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells in patients with acute neuroborreliosis. Discrimination of antigen-binding phagocytes was achieved by double staining with monoclonal antibodies. Specific activated B lymphocytes were much more numerous in cerebrospinal fluid than in blood, showing great interindividual differences. When intrathecal immunoglobulin production was present, the number of specific activated B lymphocytes was also high. The specificity of all activated B lymphocytes ranged from 10% to 60% and was higher in the acute stage than after treatment.