Molecular biology techniques play a significant role in diagnostics of many infectious diseases. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is used to confirm tick-borne diseases e.g. Borrelia burgdorferi infection. Extension of PCR method in laboratory diagnostics of
Lyme disease (LD) gives a possibility of confirmation of spirochete infection before patient body managed to produce antibodies. Diversity of material, which may be tested (blood, cerebrospinal fluid, skin biopsies, synovial fluid) and possibility of using several conservative genes for Borrelia genospecies additionally widen a diagnostic utility of PCR tests. Though high divergence of PCR results obtained in various laboratories is still a significant issue. Hence, standardization of molecular diagnostic in LD is so important.