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Tick-transmitted infectious agents have assumed increased importance as causes of human
disease in the United States. During the past two decades,
Lyme borreliosis, ehrlichiosis, and babesiosis have emerged as newly described tick-borne infectious diseases of significance for pediatricians and pediatric neurologists. In fact, the highest rates of infection for
Lyme disease and Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF), by decade of age, are in childhood. As such, tick-borne infectious
disease are of considerable public health concern, particularly for children residing in endemic regions. RMSF and human ehrlichioses can be life-threatening but are also eminently treatable when recognized early. Delays in diagnosis and treatment can lead to adverse outcomes. This article reviews the clinical and epidemiological features of
Lyme borreliosis, RMSF, and ehrlichiosis, important causes of neurological illness among children, and summarizes current therapeutic and preventive strategies.