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The occurrence of Rocky Mountain spotted fever, human monocytotropic ehrlichiosis, tularemia, tick-borne relapsing fever, and a southern erythema migrans-like illness (
disease) is determined by the geographic distribution and seasonal activity of the particular vector tick(s). The flulike signs and symptoms early in the course of spotted fever rickettsiosis, ehrlichiosis, tularemia, and relapsing fever are nonspecific and do not readily suggest a particular diagnosis. Laboratory diagnosis, particularly during the acute stage of illness, often is elusive. Empiric treatment with doxycycline can be lifesaving for Rocky Mountain spotted fever and ehrlichiosis. This article provides insight into the significance of each of these tick-transmitted diseases in Texas.