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23 patients with clinically active late
Lyme disease were randomly assigned to intravenous treatment with either penicillin or ceftriaxone. Of the 10 treated with penicillin, 5 were judged treatment failures; of the 13 who received ceftriaxone, only 1 did not respond. An additional 31 patients were subsequently treated with ceftriaxone 4 g/day (n = 17) or 2 g/day (n = 14); success rates in both groups were comparable to those in the cohort randomised to ceftriaxone. Patients unresponsive to ceftriaxone were more likely to have received corticosteroid treatment.