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Unusual otolaryngological manifestations of certain systemic bacterial and fungal infections in children.

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Systemic bacterial and fungal infections may sometimes present local manifestations within otolaryngological district whose early detection may be useful in establishing a correct diagnosis and more appropriate treatment. This paper reviews certain systemic bacterial and fungal diseases presenting ENT manifestations in the pediatric population from an otolaryngological perspective.


A medline searching for specific issues was performed in order to achieve more information as possible with regards to ENT manifestation of systemic bacterial and fungal infections. Limits for pediatric age were used. Two separate sections for bacterial and fungal
disease are included. The section on systemic bacterial infections considers cat-scratch
Lyme borreliosis, actinomycosis, Lemierre’s syndrome and congenital syphilis, and the section on systemic fungal infections includes candidiasis, aspergillosis and histoplasmosis.


Pediatricians and ear, nose and throat (ENT) specialists, approaching head and neck disorders in children, should therefore consider them among the possible differential diagnoses. This means that physicians need to recognize the first head and neck manifestations of systemic infections promptly in order to be able to treat them efficaciously and avoid the dangerous systemic spreading of the infective process.

Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2009 Dec;73 Suppl 1:S33-7. doi: 10.1016/S0165-5876(09)70007-2. Review

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