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Lyme borreliosis is a worldwide family of tick-borne infections caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato. It is the most common tick-borne human infection in the Western world. There are several subgroups of the spirochete. Two monovalent vaccines against this infection have been presented in the USA, both of which use the borrelial outer surface protein A (OspA) as antigen. The first of these vaccines has been released for general use. A European polyvalent vaccine using the antigen OspC is undergoing clinical trial in the Aland Islands in Finland. Lately, another antigen group, decorin-binding proteins (Dbp), has been considered for immunization purposes. A European vaccine must be effective against several subgroups of the borrelia spirochete, and this complicates the situation compared with that in the USA, where one spirochete subspecies dominates the scene.