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Vector borne diseases are infections transmitted by arthropods. The vector can mechanically spread the infectious
disease or give hospitality to microrganisms for their biological cycle. The etiologic agents of these infections are viruses as yellow fever and Dengue, protozoans as plasmodium of malaria, Leishmania spp., bacteria as Borrelia burgdorferi, Rickettsia spp. or worms as lymphatic filariasis. They are emerging infectious diseases for the epidemiological changes of our national territory (ex.
Lyme disease) but especially for the significant increase of the imported forms. Malaria is the more important infection for its clinical management but also for its remote possibility of a further transmission in Italy. In this review are illustrated the recent progresses in the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of the main vector borne infections that the clinical physicians may frequently observe. It is very important to know these diseases because an adequate preparation and continuous updating are necessarily required.