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?-3 intake and visual acuity in patients with retinitis pigmentosa receiving vitamin A.
– Source: Archives of Ophthalmology, June 2012
By E.L. Berson, et al.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether a diet high in long chain ?-3 fatty acids can slow the rate of visual acuity loss among patients with retinitis pigmentosa receiving vitamin A palmitate.
METHODS: We calculated dietary intake from questionnaires completed annually by 357 adult patients from 3 randomized trials who were all receiving vitamin A, 15 000 IU/d, for 4 to 6 years. Rates of visual acuity decline were compared between those with high (?0.20 g/d) vs low (<0.20 g/d) ?-3 intake. Analyses took age into account.
RESULTS: Mean rates of decline of acuity were slower among those with high ?-3 intake:
Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study distance acuity: high intake=0.59 letter per year, low intake=1.00 letter per year,P=.001;
Snellen retinal acuity: high intake=1.5% per year, low intake=2.8% per year, P=.03.
CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that mean annual rates of decline in distance and retinal visual acuities in adults with retinitis pigmentosa receiving vitamin A, 15 000 IU/d, are slower over 4 to 6 years among those consuming a diet rich in ?-3 fatty acids. To our knowledge, this is the first report that nutritional intake can modify the rate of decline of visual acuity in retinitis pigmentosa.