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Lyme disease is the most common vector-borne
disease in the northern hemisphere and its incidence is rising, leading to increased public health concerns. It is important to understand the nature of the
disease because this defines the limitations of current understanding and knowledge. Significant uncertainties in diagnostics and treatment remain. There is an important role for the nurse in raising awareness, giving advice on prevention and correct tick removal, and in recognising signs of
Lyme disease to assist access to prompt medical attention. Increased awareness, further research, improved diagnostics and advances in therapeutics are urgently required.