ProHealth health Vitamin and Natural Supplement Store and Health
Home  |  Log In  |  My Account  |  View Cart  View Your ProHealth Vitamin and Supplement Shopping Cart
800-366-6056  |  Contact Us  |  Help
Facebook Google Plus
Fibromyalgia  Chronic Fatigue Syndrome & M.E.  Lyme Disease  Natural Wellness  Supplement News  Forums  Our Story
Store     Brands   |   A-Z Index   |   Best Sellers   |   New Products   |   Deals & Specials   |   Under $10   |   SmartSavings Club

Trending News

Ultrasound Therapy for Fibromyalgia and Lyme Disease

Curcumin: The All In One Solution, Part 2

What Are the Benefits of Vitamin K2?

Vitamin D deficiency + high fat diet = metabolic syndrome

Why You Should Take Your Apple Cider Vinegar at Night

Use Burdock Oil to Promote Healthy Hair Growth

Meet Your Weight Loss Goals

People with forms of early-onset Parkinson's disease may benefit from boosting niacin in diet, resea...

AMA journal associates iron deficiency with hearing loss

Why the Mediterranean Diet Is so Successful

 
Print Page
Email Article

Electromedicine [a meta-analysis of studies measuring the effect of cranial electrotherapy stimulation (CES) in treatment of anxiety]

  [ 236 votes ]   [ Discuss This Article ]
By Daniel L Kirsch and Marshall F. Gilula • www.ProHealth.com • May 10, 2007


[Note: CES involves a form of treatment that sends low intensity microcurrent to the brain – see “Cranial Electrotherapy Stimulation: A Non-Drug Neuromedical Treatment” ]

Journal: Practical Pain Management. 2007. April; Vol. 7, No. 3. Pain management clinicians may subscribe free to this publication. Back issue information at http://www.ppmjournal.com ]

Authors: Kirsch DL , Gilula MF

While anecdotal results of CES treatment for anxiety disorders are invariably positive, a rigorous, scientific approach is required for analyzing, collating, and reporting results from the vast body of research done on CES. Due to varying methodologies and measures, the myriad of studies do not lend themselves to a simple consolidation of results. Therefore, a statistical method called ‘meta-analysis’ is used to combine results in a meaningful way and allow an objective measure of the efficacy of CES.

… Meta-analysis is a statistical method of combining the results of several studies that address a set of related research hypotheses. Because the results from different studies investigating different independent variables are measured on different scales, the dependent variables in a meta-analysis are some standardized measure of effect size. The usual effect size indicator is either the standardized mean difference or an odds ratio in experiments with outcomes of dichotomous variables (success versus failure).

In this case, a meta-analysis of CES calculates the percent of patients improving versus the percent not improving to yield the treatment effect size r, which is equal to the amount of patient improvement given as percentage.

In the previous issue [March 2007], it was reported that results of 500 patients produced an effect size r=.62 [62 percent of patients improving]. When the smaller groups of patients with specific types of anxiety related disorders were broken out, the effect size among those suffering from panic disorder was r=.45, OCD patients, r=.68, bi-polar disorder r=.71, PTSD (r =.55) ADHD (r =.62), and phobias (r =.49). The overall mean effect size for the combined smaller groups was r=.64. These results can be compared with the accepted standardized ratings of r=.10 for small effect, r=.30 for medium effect and r=.50 for large effect.

Thus it can be seen that the overall effect of CES for anxiety disorders is large and that there is a notable effect of duration of use that enhances such outcomes.





Post a Comment

Featured Products From the ProHealth Store
FibroSleep™ Mitochondria Ignite™ with NT Factor® Ultra ATP+, Double Strength

Looking for Vitamins, Herbs and Supplements?
Search the ProHealth Store for Hundreds of Natural Health Products


Article Comments



Be the first to comment on this article!

Post a Comment


 
NAD+ Ignite with Niagen

Featured Products

Energy NADH™ 12.5mg Energy NADH™ 12.5mg
Improve Energy & Cognitive Function
Mitochondria Ignite™ with NT Factor® Mitochondria Ignite™ with NT Factor®
Reduce Fatigue up to 45%
Ultra ATP+, Double Strength Ultra ATP+, Double Strength
Get energized with malic acid & magnesium
FibroSleep™ FibroSleep™
The All-in-One Natural Sleep Aid

Natural Remedies

SAD? Coping with Seasonal Affective Disorder SAD? Coping with Seasonal Affective Disorder
D-ficient? Health Risks You Need to Know About D-ficient? Health Risks You Need to Know About
Natural Support for Mood, Sleep and Mental Focus? L-theanine Natural Support for Mood, Sleep and Mental Focus? L-theanine
Restore Youthful Cognition and Well-Being Restore Youthful Cognition and Well-Being
Running on Empty? Fuel Up with NADH Running on Empty? Fuel Up with NADH

CONTACT US
ProHealth, Inc.
555 Maple Ave
Carpinteria, CA 93013
(800) 366-6056  |  Email

· Become a Wholesaler
· Vendor Inquiries
· Affiliate Program
SHOP WITH CONFIDENCE
Credit Card Processing
SUBSCRIBE TO OUR NEWSLETTERS
Get the latest news about Fibromyalgia, M.E/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, Lyme Disease and Natural Wellness

CONNECT WITH US ProHealth on Facebook  ProHealth on Twitter  ProHealth on Pinterest  ProHealth on Google Plus

© 2017 ProHealth, Inc. All rights reserved. Pain Tracker App  |  Store  |  Customer Service  |  Guarantee  |  Privacy  |  Contact Us  |  Library  |  RSS  |  Site Map