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Background: Detection of a retrovirus, xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV), has recently been reported in 67% of patients with chronic fatigue syndrome.
We have studied a total of 170 samples from chronic fatigue syndrome patients from two UK cohorts and 395 controls for evidence of XMRV infection by looking either for the presence of viral nucleic acids using quantitative PCR (limit of detection less than 16 viral copies) or for the presence of serological responses using a virus neutralization assay.
Results: We have not identified XMRV DNA in any samples by PCR (0/299). Some serum samples showed XMRV neutralizing activity (26/565), but only one of these positive sera came from a CFS patient.
Most of the positive sera were also able to neutralize MLV particles pseudotyped with envelope proteins from other viruses, including vesicular stomatitis virus, indicating significant cross-reactivity in serological responses. Four positive samples were specific for XMRV.
Conclusions: No association between XMRV infection and CFS was observed in the samples tested, either by PCR or serological methodologies. The non-specific neutralization observed in multiple serum samples suggests that it is unlikely that these responses were elicited by XMRV and highlights the danger of over-estimating XMRV frequency based on serological assays.
In spite of this, we believe that the detection of neutralizing activity that did not inhibit VSV-G pseudotyped MLV in at least four human serum samples indicates that:
• XMRV infection may occur in the general population,
• Although with currently uncertain outcomes.
Source: Retrovirology, Feb 15, 2010. DOI: 10.1186/1742-4690-7-10, by Groom HCT, Bocherit VC, Makinson K, Randal E, Baptista S, Hagan S, Gow JW, Mattes FM, Breuer J, Kerr JR, Stoye JP, Bishop KN. Division of Virology, MRC National Institute for Medical Research, London; CFS Group, Division of Cellular & Molecular Medicine, St. George's University of London; Center for Forensic Investigation, Glasgow Caledonian University, Glasgow; Department of Virology, Barts and The London NHS trust, London; Division of Infection and Immunity, University College London, UK. [Email: email@example.com; firstname.lastname@example.org]