ProHealth health Vitamin and Natural Supplement Store and Health
Home  |  Log In  |  My Account  |  View Cart  View Your ProHealth Vitamin and Supplement Shopping Cart
800-366-6056  |  Contact Us  |  Help
Facebook Google Plus
Fibromyalgia  Chronic Fatigue Syndrome & M.E.  Lyme Disease  Natural Wellness  Supplement News  Forums  Our Story
Store     Brands   |   A-Z Index   |   Best Sellers   |   New Products   |   Deals & Specials   |   Under $10   |   SmartSavings Club

Trending News

Meta-analysis adds evidence to association between omega-3 supplementation and lower heart rate

Friendly User's Guide for the Timing of Nutritional Supplements

The Health Benefits of Manuka Honey

Increase Your Magnesium Intake

Vitamin D supplementation could ease IBS symptoms

Top Tips to Boost Your Immunity

11 Amazing Health Benefits of Using Baking Soda

Nicotinamide riboside shows promise for treatment of Alzheimer’s disease

Exercise, calcium, vitamin D, and other factors linked with fewer injurious falls

Mediterranean diet associated with lower risk of aggressive prostate cancer

 
Print Page
Email Article

Receptor test (pupillary dilatation after application of 0.01% tropicamide solution) and determination of central nervous activation (Fourier analysis of pupillary oscillations) in patients with Alzheimer's disease.

  [ Not Yet Rated ]   [ Discuss This Article ]
By Grunberger J, Linzmayer L, Walter H, Rainer M, Mas • www.ProHealth.com • November 1, 1999


Memory loss and severe cognitive deficits in Alzheimer patients are supposed to be related to a reduction of acetylcholine as well as to central nervous deactivation. For the investigation of cholinergic deficits and deactivation, we used computer-assisted pupillometry.

Cholinergic deficits caused by a particularly severe loss of cholinergic neurons may be responsible for cognitive and mnemonic performance deficits. The control of the pupillary diameter represents a balance between cholinergic and adrenergic innervation and is influenced directly or indirectly by central and autonomic nervous system inputs. Either of these systems could be affected in Alzheimer patients. A reduced innervation of the target muscle through neuronal cell death, axon retraction, reduced release, increased reuptake of altered amounts or function of neurotransmitter receptors seems to affect the pupillary response to cholinergic antagonists in Alzheimer patients.

There is, however, no relationship between pupillary diameter and central deactivation, but between central nervous activation and pupillary oscillations which reflect the physiological corticodiencephalic activity, a relationship has to be assumed. Frequencies and amplitudes of pupillary oscillations measured by means of Fourier analysis are modulated corticodiencephalically.

Therefore, Alzheimer patients were compared to healthy controls with respect to their pupillary diameters and responses to an acetylcholine antagonist. Twenty-nine patients, aged between 55 and 85 years, suffering from mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease (AD) and 29 normal controls of similar age (56-85 years) participated in the study. The cholinergic receptors of the pupil were blocked by the acetylcholine antagonist tropicamide. It could be assumed that the larger the pupillary dilatation, the larger the extent of cognitive deficits. Alzheimer patients show abnormal acetylcholine neurotransmission.

Changes of pupillary diameter after instillation of 1 drop of 0.01% tropicamide solution were measured and Fourier analysis of pupillary oscillations was performed. Times of measurement were: 0 (baseline), 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 min. After 4 min tropicamide was instilled. Forty min after the instillation of tropicamide into the left eye, the Alzheimer patients showed a pronounced dilatation of 41.57%. The dilatation in normal controls was 28.5%. Fourier analysis of pupillary oscillations (sum of frequency bands = power) demonstrated a marked deactivation (low amplitudes in low-frequency bands, but in contrast to our expectations no higher amplitudes in the higher frequency bands) in patients with AD which remained constant at all times of measurement.

By means of discriminant analysis of pupillary diameter and pupillary oscillations (frequency band 0.00-1 Hz), 89. 7% were correctly predicted to be Alzheimer patients, 89% to be normal controls.

Source: Neuropsychobiology 1999;40(1):40-6
PMID: 10420100, UI: 99350538

(Department of Psychiatry, University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria. )




Post a Comment

Featured Products From the ProHealth Store
Mitochondria Ignite™ with NT Factor® Ultra ATP+, Double Strength FibroSleep™


Article Comments



Be the first to comment on this article!

Post a Comment


 
Optimized Curcumin Longvida with Omega-3

Featured Products

FibroSleep™ FibroSleep™
The All-in-One Natural Sleep Aid
Mitochondria Ignite™ with NT Factor® Mitochondria Ignite™ with NT Factor®
Reduce Fatigue up to 45%
Ultra EPA  - Fish Oil Ultra EPA - Fish Oil
Ultra concentrated source of essential fish oils
Vitamin D3 Extreme™ Vitamin D3 Extreme™
50,000 IU Vitamin D3 - Prescription Strength

Natural Remedies

Are You Obtaining the Proper Enzymes? Are You Obtaining the Proper Enzymes?
Ubiquinol - A More Advanced Form of the Energy Producing Nutrient CoQ-10 Ubiquinol - A More Advanced Form of the Energy Producing Nutrient CoQ-10
When a Good Night's Sleep Is Just a Daydream... When a Good Night's Sleep Is Just a Daydream...
Mitochondria-Booster NIAGEN® Shows Promise in First Human Clinical Trial Mitochondria-Booster NIAGEN® Shows Promise in First Human Clinical Trial
Strontium - The Missing Mineral for Strong Bones Strontium - The Missing Mineral for Strong Bones

CONTACT US
ProHealth, Inc.
555 Maple Ave
Carpinteria, CA 93013
(800) 366-6056  |  Email

· Become a Wholesaler
· Vendor Inquiries
· Affiliate Program
SHOP WITH CONFIDENCE
Credit Card Processing
SUBSCRIBE TO OUR NEWSLETTERS
Get the latest news about Fibromyalgia, M.E/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, Lyme Disease and Natural Wellness

CONNECT WITH US ProHealth on Facebook  ProHealth on Twitter  ProHealth on Pinterest  ProHealth on Google Plus

© 2018 ProHealth, Inc. All rights reserved. Pain Tracker App  |  Store  |  Customer Service  |  Guarantee  |  Privacy  |  Contact Us  |  Library  |  RSS  |  Site Map