ProHealth health Vitamin and Natural Supplement Store and Health
Home  |  Log In  |  My Account  |  View Cart  View Your ProHealth Vitamin and Supplement Shopping Cart
800-366-6056  |  Contact Us  |  Help
Facebook Google Plus
Fibromyalgia  Chronic Fatigue Syndrome & M.E.  Lyme Disease  Natural Wellness  Supplement News  Forums  Our Story
Store     Brands   |   A-Z Index   |   Best Sellers   |   New Products   |   Deals & Specials   |   Under $10   |   SmartSavings Club

Trending News

10 Fibro-Friendly Foods with a Bonus: Beautiful Skin

Fight Back! Win the War Being Waged Against Your Immune System

The role of microbiota and intestinal permeability in the pathophysiology of autoimmune and neuroimm...

Studies Show that Magnesium L-threonate Improves Brain Plasticity, Leading to Direct and Significant...

Clary Sage Oil May Be Pricey, but Its Benefits Are Priceless

Component of red wine, grapes can help to reduce inflammation, study finds

Poly MVA: A Novel Therapy for Increasing Energy, Repairing DNA, and Promoting Overall Health

Acupressure reduced fatigue in breast cancer survivors

Omega-3 fatty acid stops known trigger of lupus

What’s Fenugreek Good For?

Print Page
Email Article

Receptor test (pupillary dilatation after application of 0.01% tropicamide solution) and determination of central nervous activation (Fourier analysis of pupillary oscillations) in patients with Alzheimer's disease.

  [ Not Yet Rated ]   [ Discuss This Article ]
By Grunberger J, Linzmayer L, Walter H, Rainer M, Mas • • November 1, 1999

Memory loss and severe cognitive deficits in Alzheimer patients are supposed to be related to a reduction of acetylcholine as well as to central nervous deactivation. For the investigation of cholinergic deficits and deactivation, we used computer-assisted pupillometry.

Cholinergic deficits caused by a particularly severe loss of cholinergic neurons may be responsible for cognitive and mnemonic performance deficits. The control of the pupillary diameter represents a balance between cholinergic and adrenergic innervation and is influenced directly or indirectly by central and autonomic nervous system inputs. Either of these systems could be affected in Alzheimer patients. A reduced innervation of the target muscle through neuronal cell death, axon retraction, reduced release, increased reuptake of altered amounts or function of neurotransmitter receptors seems to affect the pupillary response to cholinergic antagonists in Alzheimer patients.

There is, however, no relationship between pupillary diameter and central deactivation, but between central nervous activation and pupillary oscillations which reflect the physiological corticodiencephalic activity, a relationship has to be assumed. Frequencies and amplitudes of pupillary oscillations measured by means of Fourier analysis are modulated corticodiencephalically.

Therefore, Alzheimer patients were compared to healthy controls with respect to their pupillary diameters and responses to an acetylcholine antagonist. Twenty-nine patients, aged between 55 and 85 years, suffering from mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease (AD) and 29 normal controls of similar age (56-85 years) participated in the study. The cholinergic receptors of the pupil were blocked by the acetylcholine antagonist tropicamide. It could be assumed that the larger the pupillary dilatation, the larger the extent of cognitive deficits. Alzheimer patients show abnormal acetylcholine neurotransmission.

Changes of pupillary diameter after instillation of 1 drop of 0.01% tropicamide solution were measured and Fourier analysis of pupillary oscillations was performed. Times of measurement were: 0 (baseline), 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 min. After 4 min tropicamide was instilled. Forty min after the instillation of tropicamide into the left eye, the Alzheimer patients showed a pronounced dilatation of 41.57%. The dilatation in normal controls was 28.5%. Fourier analysis of pupillary oscillations (sum of frequency bands = power) demonstrated a marked deactivation (low amplitudes in low-frequency bands, but in contrast to our expectations no higher amplitudes in the higher frequency bands) in patients with AD which remained constant at all times of measurement.

By means of discriminant analysis of pupillary diameter and pupillary oscillations (frequency band 0.00-1 Hz), 89. 7% were correctly predicted to be Alzheimer patients, 89% to be normal controls.

Source: Neuropsychobiology 1999;40(1):40-6
PMID: 10420100, UI: 99350538

(Department of Psychiatry, University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria. )

Post a Comment

Featured Products From the ProHealth Store
Mitochondria Ignite™ with NT Factor® Optimized Curcumin Longvida® FibroSleep™

Looking for Vitamins, Herbs and Supplements?
Search the ProHealth Store for Hundreds of Natural Health Products

Article Comments

Be the first to comment on this article!

Post a Comment

Natural Pain Relief Supplements

Featured Products

Ultra ATP+, Double Strength Ultra ATP+, Double Strength
Get energized with malic acid & magnesium
Mitochondria Ignite™ with NT Factor® Mitochondria Ignite™ with NT Factor®
Reduce Fatigue up to 45%
Vitamin D3 Extreme™ Vitamin D3 Extreme™
50,000 IU Vitamin D3 - Prescription Strength
Optimized Curcumin Longvida® Optimized Curcumin Longvida®
Supports Cognition, Memory & Overall Health

Natural Remedies

Itching to Find Dry Skin Relief? Itching to Find Dry Skin Relief?
Running on Empty? Fuel Up with NADH Running on Empty? Fuel Up with NADH
Enhance Eyelashes Naturally Enhance Eyelashes Naturally
The Crucial Role CoQ10 Plays in Fibromyalgia and ME/CFS The Crucial Role CoQ10 Plays in Fibromyalgia and ME/CFS
Everything You Always Wanted to Know About Sleep But Were Too Tired to Ask Everything You Always Wanted to Know About Sleep But Were Too Tired to Ask

ProHealth, Inc.
555 Maple Ave
Carpinteria, CA 93013
(800) 366-6056  |  Email

· Become a Wholesaler
· Vendor Inquiries
· Affiliate Program
Credit Card Processing
Be the first to know about new products, special discounts and the latest health news. *New subscribers only

CONNECT WITH US ProHealth on Facebook  ProHealth on Twitter  ProHealth on Pinterest  ProHealth on Google Plus

© 2016 ProHealth, Inc. All rights reserved. Pain Tracker App  |  Store  |  Customer Service  |  Guarantee  |  Privacy  |  Contact Us  |  Library  |  RSS  |  Site Map