ProHealth health Vitamin and Natural Supplement Store and Health
Home  |  Log In  |  My Account  |  View Cart  View Your ProHealth Vitamin and Supplement Shopping Cart
800-366-6056  |  Contact Us  |  Help
Facebook Google Plus
Fibromyalgia  Chronic Fatigue Syndrome & M.E.  Lyme Disease  Natural Wellness  Supplement News  Forums  Our Story
Store     Brands   |   A-Z Index   |   Best Sellers   |   New Products   |   Deals & Specials   |   Under $10   |   SmartSavings Club

Trending News

10 Fibro-Friendly Foods with a Bonus: Beautiful Skin

Fight Back! Win the War Being Waged Against Your Immune System

The role of microbiota and intestinal permeability in the pathophysiology of autoimmune and neuroimm...

Studies Show that Magnesium L-threonate Improves Brain Plasticity, Leading to Direct and Significant...

Clary Sage Oil May Be Pricey, but Its Benefits Are Priceless

Component of red wine, grapes can help to reduce inflammation, study finds

Poly MVA: A Novel Therapy for Increasing Energy, Repairing DNA, and Promoting Overall Health

Acupressure reduced fatigue in breast cancer survivors

Omega-3 fatty acid stops known trigger of lupus

What’s Fenugreek Good For?

Print Page
Email Article

Abstract: Visual association test to detect early dementia of the Alzheimer type

  [ 99 votes ]   [ Discuss This Article ]
By J Lindeboom, B Schmand, L Tulner, G Walstra and C Jonker • • July 22, 2002

Background: The visual association test (VAT) is a brief learning task based on imagery mnemonics. The test materials consist of six line drawings of pairs of interacting objects or animals—for example, an ape holding an umbrella. The person is asked to name each object and, later, is presented with one object from the pair and asked to name the other.

Objective: To verify that the task induces robust incidental or effortless learning (study 1), and to study the efficiency of the test as a discriminator between early dementia of the Alzheimer type (DAT) and non-demented people (study 2) and non-DAT types of dementia (study 3).

Methods: Study 1: two groups of elderly volunteers were administered the VAT. The stimuli were presented in the interactive fashion to group A—for example, a monkey carrying an umbrella (n=83)—and side by side to group B—for example, separate pictures of a monkey alone and an umbrella alone (n=79). Group B received learning instructions, but group A did not. Study 2: three groups of subjects were selected from a population based follow up study: incident DAT cases (n=24), cognitively declining subjects not diagnosed with dementia (n=21), and stable non-demented subjects (n=204). Test performance of the non-demented group at baseline was compared with that of patients with DAT at the time of their diagnosis, of patients with DAT a year before their diagnosis, and of non-demented declining subjects at baseline. Study 3: subjects were patients referred for neuropsychological assessment because of suspected dementia. They were diagnosed by consensus criteria of various dementia syndromes.

Results: Study 1: recall was more than twice as high in group A as in group B. Thus interactive presentation, even in the absence of learning instructions, enhances learning. Study 2: at a level of 97.5% specificity, the VAT had a sensitivity of 87.5% for DAT cases at the time of diagnosis and 66.7% one year before diagnosis. The cognitively declining group scored significantly lower on the VAT at baseline than the non-demented group. The VAT discriminated more effectively than both the MMSE and the six item picture learning task from the CAMCOG. Study 3: VAT scores were significantly lower in patients with DAT (n=48) than in patients with vascular dementia (n=37), frontotemporal dementia (n=9), or subcortical dementia (n=15), but not lower than in patients with Lewy body dementia (n=7). Mean mini mental state examination scores of these groups were not significantly different. The VAT discriminated patients with DAT from patients with other types of dementia more effectively than a prose recall test. Sensitivity was 79% and specificity 69%.

Conclusions: The VAT detects with high specificity a sizeable proportion of patients with DAT a year before the diagnosis, and a low VAT score is relatively uncommon in patients with non-DAT dementia.

Post a Comment

Featured Products From the ProHealth Store
Optimized Curcumin Longvida® Energy NADH™ 12.5mg Ultra EPA  - Fish Oil

Looking for Vitamins, Herbs and Supplements?
Search the ProHealth Store for Hundreds of Natural Health Products

Article Comments

Be the first to comment on this article!

Post a Comment

Natural Pain Relief Supplements

Featured Products

Vitamin D3 Extreme™ Vitamin D3 Extreme™
50,000 IU Vitamin D3 - Prescription Strength
FibroSleep™ FibroSleep™
The All-in-One Natural Sleep Aid
Ultra ATP+, Double Strength Ultra ATP+, Double Strength
Get energized with malic acid & magnesium
Optimized Curcumin Longvida® Optimized Curcumin Longvida®
Supports Cognition, Memory & Overall Health
Ultra EPA  - Fish Oil Ultra EPA - Fish Oil
Ultra concentrated source of essential fish oils

Natural Remedies

Mitochondria-Booster NIAGEN® Shows Promise in First Human Clinical Trial Mitochondria-Booster NIAGEN® Shows Promise in First Human Clinical Trial
Looking for Energy? Turn to Plants. Looking for Energy? Turn to Plants.
SAD? Coping with Seasonal Affective Disorder SAD? Coping with Seasonal Affective Disorder
How to Jump-start and Sustain Energy Production in CFS How to Jump-start and Sustain Energy Production in CFS
Vitamin E: Super Antioxidant We Only Thought We Knew Vitamin E: Super Antioxidant We Only Thought We Knew

ProHealth, Inc.
555 Maple Ave
Carpinteria, CA 93013
(800) 366-6056  |  Email

· Become a Wholesaler
· Vendor Inquiries
· Affiliate Program
Credit Card Processing
Be the first to know about new products, special discounts and the latest health news. *New subscribers only

CONNECT WITH US ProHealth on Facebook  ProHealth on Twitter  ProHealth on Pinterest  ProHealth on Google Plus

© 2016 ProHealth, Inc. All rights reserved. Pain Tracker App  |  Store  |  Customer Service  |  Guarantee  |  Privacy  |  Contact Us  |  Library  |  RSS  |  Site Map