ProHealth health Vitamin and Natural Supplement Store and Health
Home  |  Log In  |  My Account  |  View Cart  View Your ProHealth Vitamin and Supplement Shopping Cart
800-366-6056  |  Contact Us  |  Help
Facebook Google Plus
Fibromyalgia  Chronic Fatigue Syndrome & M.E.  Lyme Disease  Natural Wellness  Supplement News  Forums  Our Story
Store     Brands   |   A-Z Index   |   Best Sellers   |   New Products   |   Deals & Specials   |   Under $10   |   SmartSavings Club

Trending News

10 Fibro-Friendly Foods with a Bonus: Beautiful Skin

Studies Show that Magnesium L-threonate Improves Brain Plasticity, Leading to Direct and Significant...

Clary Sage Oil May Be Pricey, but Its Benefits Are Priceless

Pumpkin Pie Turmeric Breakfast Smoothie - Vegan + Gluten-Free

Component of red wine, grapes can help to reduce inflammation, study finds

Poly MVA: A Novel Therapy for Increasing Energy, Repairing DNA, and Promoting Overall Health

Vitamin D supplementation extends life in mouse model of Huntington's disease

Omega-3 fatty acid stops known trigger of lupus

Conquer Your Email Inbox, Increase Productivity and Reduce Stress

The Significance of Selenium

Print Page
Email Article

The use of nonopioid drugs in management of chronic orofacial pain

  [ 28 votes ]   [ Discuss This Article ]
By Zuniga JR • • September 10, 1998

Although controversial, opioid analgesics have been prescribed
for patients with chronic facial pain. Based primarily on
survey data and a few well-controlled clinical trials,
long-term opioid treatment provides adequate pain reduction in
41% to 100% of patients with chronic nonmalignant pain.
However, only 25% of chronic facial pain patients reported
adequate pain relief with chronic opioid treatment. Work,
home, and school function are generally reestablished or
maintained during chronic opioid treatment, but 25% to 38% of
patients remain dysfunctional, and one study indicated that
20% of patients became dysfunctional during treatment. Chronic
opioid treatment is associated with many transient side
effects; constipation, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, itching,
and fatigue have been reported in 5% to 42% of patients taking
opioids over 1 year. Although survey studies suggest that the
risks of addiction are low in typical patients, drug abuse
rates up to 17.3% and prescription abuse rates up to 27.6%
were reported within groups of chronic opioid users. Chronic
opioid use induces analgesic tolerance and physical
dependence, which may result in a serious abstinence syndrome
in users and children born to users. Chronic opioid use also
may induce harmful immune system changes, diminish cognitive
and motor function, and produce nociceptive hyperexcitability.
This article shows that the use of long-term opioids for
chronic facial pain is not justified based on the available
data. Despite these perceived problems, there is anecdotal
evidence that chronic facial pain patients will respond
positively to opioid analgesics. In our experience, the pain
assessment scale and a modification of the World Health
Organization's three-step analgesic ladder, which prescribes
nonopioid analgesics, can be the starting point for the
successful management of chronic facial pain.

Post a Comment

Featured Products From the ProHealth Store
FibroSleep™ Energy NADH™ 12.5mg Ultra ATP+, Double Strength

Looking for Vitamins, Herbs and Supplements?
Search the ProHealth Store for Hundreds of Natural Health Products

Article Comments

Be the first to comment on this article!

Post a Comment

Natural Pain Relief Supplements

Featured Products

Optimized Curcumin Longvida® Optimized Curcumin Longvida®
Supports Cognition, Memory & Overall Health
Vitamin D3 Extreme™ Vitamin D3 Extreme™
50,000 IU Vitamin D3 - Prescription Strength
Ultra EPA  - Fish Oil Ultra EPA - Fish Oil
Ultra concentrated source of essential fish oils
Ultra ATP+, Double Strength Ultra ATP+, Double Strength
Get energized with malic acid & magnesium
Mitochondria Ignite™ with NT Factor® Mitochondria Ignite™ with NT Factor®
Reduce Fatigue up to 45%

Natural Remedies

Optimize Your Immune System Naturally: Thymic Protein A Optimize Your Immune System Naturally: Thymic Protein A
Vitamin E: Super Antioxidant We Only Thought We Knew Vitamin E: Super Antioxidant We Only Thought We Knew
Rejuvenating the Brain - How PQQ Helps Power Up Mental Processing Rejuvenating the Brain - How PQQ Helps Power Up Mental Processing
Relief for Dry, Itchy Skin Caused by Fibromyalgia Relief for Dry, Itchy Skin Caused by Fibromyalgia
Curcumin - a Golden Gift of Nature with Benefits Still Untold Curcumin - a Golden Gift of Nature with Benefits Still Untold

ProHealth, Inc.
555 Maple Ave
Carpinteria, CA 93013
(800) 366-6056  |  Email

· Become a Wholesaler
· Vendor Inquiries
· Affiliate Program
Credit Card Processing
Be the first to know about new products, special discounts and the latest health news. *New subscribers only

CONNECT WITH US ProHealth on Facebook  ProHealth on Twitter  ProHealth on Pinterest  ProHealth on Google Plus

© 2016 ProHealth, Inc. All rights reserved. Pain Tracker App  |  Store  |  Customer Service  |  Guarantee  |  Privacy  |  Contact Us  |  Library  |  RSS  |  Site Map