Longevity Articles

Exercise Improves Memory By Increasing Blood Flow to the Brain

aerobic exercise improves memory by increasing blood flow to the brain
  • Aerobic exercise boosts blood flow to the brain, specifically in two regions that are associated with memory - the hippocampus and theĀ anterior cingulate cortex.

  • In a year-long study of older adults with memory problems, those in the aerobic exercise group had a 47 percent improvement in memory scoresĀ compared to those who just did stretching.Ā 

This article was posted on UT Southwestern Newsroom:Ā 

Scientists have collected plenty of evidence linking exercise to brain health, with some research suggesting fitness may even improve memory. But what happens during exercise to trigger these benefits?

New UT Southwestern research that mapped brain changes after one year of aerobic workouts has uncovered a potentially critical process: Exercise boosts blood flow into two key regions of the brain associated with memory.

Notably, the study showed this blood flow can help even older people with memory issues improve cognition, a finding that scientists say could guide future Alzheimerā€™s disease research.

ā€œPerhaps we can one day develop a drug or procedure that safely targets blood flow into these brain regions,ā€ says Binu Thomas, Ph.D., a UT Southwestern senior research scientist in neuroimaging.

ā€œBut weā€™re just getting started with exploring the right combination of strategies to help prevent or delay symptoms of Alzheimerā€™s disease. Thereā€™s much more to understand about the brain and aging.ā€

The study, published in the Journal of Alzheimerā€™s Disease, documented changes in long-term memory and cerebral blood flow in 30 participants, each of them 60 or older with memory problems. Half of them underwent 12 months of aerobic exercise training; the rest did only stretching.

The exercise group showed a 47 percent improvement in some memory scores after one year compared with minimal change in the stretch participants. Brain imaging of the exercise group, taken while they were at rest at the beginning and end of the study, showed increased blood flow into the anterior cingulate cortex and the hippocampus ā€“ neural regions that play important roles in memory function.

Other studies have documented benefits for cognitively normal adults on an exercise program, including previous research from Thomas that showed aging athletes have better blood flow into the cortex than sedentary older adults. But the new research is significant because it plots improvement over a longer period in adults at high risk to develop Alzheimerā€™s disease.

ā€œWeā€™ve shown that even when your memory starts to fade, you can still do something about it by adding aerobic exercise to your lifestyle,ā€ Thomas says.

The search for dementia interventions is becoming increasingly pressing: More than 5 million Americans have Alzheimerā€™s disease, and the number is expected to triple by 2050.

Recent research has helped scientists gain a greater understanding of the molecular genesis of the disease, including a 2018 discovery from UT Southwesternā€™s Peter Oā€™Donnell Jr. Brain Institute that is guiding efforts to detect the condition before symptoms arise. Yet extensive research into how to prevent or slow dementia have not yielded proven treatments that would make an early diagnosis actionable for patients.

UT Southwestern scientists are among many teams across the world trying to determine if exercise may be the first such intervention. Evidence is mounting that it could at least play a small role in delaying or reducing the risk of Alzheimerā€™s disease.

For example, a 2018 study showed that people with lower fitness levels experienced faster deterioration of vital nerve fibers in the brain called white matter. A study published last year showed exercise correlated with slower deterioration of the hippocampus.

Regarding the importance of blood flow, Thomas says it may someday be used in combination with other strategies to preserve brain function in people with mild cognitive impairment.

ā€œCerebral blood flow is a part of the puzzle, and we need to continue piecing it together,ā€ Thomas says. ā€œBut weā€™ve seen enough data to know that starting a fitness program can have lifelong benefits for our brains as well as our hearts.ā€

This study was published in theĀ Journal of Alzheimer's DiseaseĀ in May 2020.Ā 

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