Longevity Articles

Unlock the Potential of Ergothioneine: A Powerful Ally for the Over-40s

Unlock the Potential of Ergothioneine: A Powerful Ally for the Over-40s

Spooky season is a fun time of the year, but not when the cobwebs are inside your head. Sweep away the fog and make way for ergothioneine—nature’s lesser-known but extraordinarily potent antioxidant with powerful anti-aging potential. Hidden in the humble mushroom and synthesized by bacteria and fungi, ergothioneine is emerging as a star player for cellular health, longevity, and delaying the conditions of aging. Whether you're over 40 and battling metabolic slowdowns, or just keen on safeguarding your health, it's time to turn the spotlight on this mushroom-sourced compound. 

The Basics: What is Ergothioneine? 

Ergothioneine is a naturally occurring compound, a metabolite of the amino acid histidine and primarily found in a variety of foods. Bacteria and fungi synthesize this compound, and it is particularly abundant in mushrooms. 

Ergothioneine has drawn scientific interest due to its cytoprotective properties. It acts as an antioxidant, scavenging free radicals and other reactive oxygen species. These properties have led to the suggestion that ergothioneine might be a crucial nutrient for healthy aging and the regulation of inflammatory pathways.

Why Ergothioneine Matters for Those Over 40 

As we age, our bodies undergo various changes, many of which can impact our overall health and wellbeing. One of the key concerns for people over 40 is a slowdown in metabolism, which doesn’t just manifest as weight gain. A slower metabolism translates to cellular processes that are less efficient at protecting the heart, blood sugar balance, and other tissues that lose function as we age.  

Ergothioneine, with its antioxidant and cytoprotective properties, could be a vital ally in managing these health concerns. Research suggests that oxidative stress plays a significant role in the development of metabolic challenges and its associated health issues. Thus, ergothioneine's ability to combat oxidative stress might be beneficial for those over the age of 40 dealing with metabolic slowdown. 

Pioneering Ergothioneine Research and Its Implications 

While ergothioneine is currently sold as a dietary supplement for its antioxidant properties and support of healthy inflammatory pathways, until recently, there were no published intervention trials examining its health benefits in humans. 

A breakthrough came with a study focused on ergothioneine's uptake and pharmacokinetics. In this placebo-controlled intervention study, 45 participants received either a placebo or ergothioneine (in doses of 5 or 25 mg/day) for a week, followed by a four-week follow-up. This study found that ergothioneine is rapidly absorbed and largely retained by the body, leading to significant increases in plasma ergothioneine levels. 

Another key study, currently ongoing in Singapore, is examining the efficacy of ergothioneine to delay or reverse cognitive impairment in elderly individuals with mild cognitive impairment. This study is particularly noteworthy because it suggests that ergothioneine may have potential benefits for cognitive health in older adults. 

Ergothioneine: The Potential “Longevity Vitamin” 

Ergothioneine's potential health benefits have led to discussions about whether it should be designated a vitamin. ergothioneine's antioxidant and cytoprotective roles, along with the existence of a physiological transporter (SLC22A4) for Ergothioneine, have led to this proposition. 

Ames (2018) proposed that ergothioneine could be classified as a 'longevity vitamin'. These are dietary compounds that may not be necessarily required for early survival but support health and, without which, organisms may experience accelerated ageing. The association of high plasma ergothioneine levels with reduced mortality in humans further supports this idea. 

The Comprehensive Health Benefits of Ergothioneine 

Ergothioneine is a naturally occurring amino acid found in certain foods like mushrooms and organ meat. As an essential nutrient that the body cannot produce on its own, ergothioneine plays a significant role in various aspects of human health. Below are the mechanisms by which ergothioneine imparts its health benefits, such as supporting longevity, maintaining cellular health, and enhancing brain function. 

Supports Longevity 

Research indicates that ergothioneine can extend lifespan by guarding against the rapid shortening of telomeres. Telomeres are the caps at the ends of chromosomes that protect them from deterioration. As you age, your telomeres naturally shorten, which is a strong predictor of both lifespan and healthspan. Ergothioneine helps in maintaining telomere length, thus potentially offering a longer, healthier life. 

Maintains Cellular Health 

One of the primary mechanisms by which ergothioneine promotes health is by reducing oxidative stress within cells. Oxidative stress can lead to DNA damage, decreased ATP production (the energy currency of the cell), and increased inflammatory markers. By acting as a potent antioxidant, ergothioneine neutralizes harmful free radicals and reactive oxygen species, thereby maintaining cellular integrity and function. 

Promotes Heart Health 

Ergothioneine’s ability to reduce oxidative stress has profound implications for heart health. Oxidative stress is linked to accelerated aging in heart cells and is a significant risk factor for cardiovascular impairment. By mitigating this stress, ergothioneine exhibits potent cardioprotective properties, potentially reducing cardiac-related mortality risk. 

Enhances Brain Health 

Low levels of ergothioneine have been correlated with increased risks of neurodegeneration and cognitive decline. Animal studies suggest that ergothioneine administration improves markers of memory and mood. By reducing oxidative stress and inflammatory pathways in the brain, ergothioneine may offer protection against various neurodegenerative disorders. 

Improves Performance 

Ergothioneine also appears to enhance physical performance. One study involving mice demonstrated that ergothioneine supplementation led to increased time to exhaustion during aerobic activities and promoted post-exercise protein synthesis. This suggests that ergothioneine could be beneficial for improving physical endurance and muscle recovery. 

How It Works: Mechanism of Action 

Understanding the mechanism of action for ergothioneine can help us grasp its extensive health benefits. This unique amino acid is absorbed in the small intestine through a highly specialized transport process. Unlike other amino acids, ergothioneine utilizes a specific carrier protein known as Organic Cation Transporter 1 (OCTN1) for its absorption. OCTN1 is highly selective for ergothioneine, ensuring that it is efficiently absorbed and transported throughout the body. This selectivity allows ergothioneine to be delivered in a targeted manner to cells that can benefit most from its antioxidant properties. 

Once inside the cell, ergothioneine takes on a crucial role as a powerful antioxidant. It functions by donating electrons to neutralize harmful free radicals and reactive oxygen species (ROS). These ROS are naturally produced during cellular metabolism but can become problematic when generated in excess, such as during times of environmental stress, illness, or aging. Elevated levels of ROS can lead to cellular damage, tissue swelling, and a host of chronic conditions. Ergothioneine’s effectiveness in neutralizing these harmful molecules is central to its cellular protective properties. 

Animal studies have underscored the efficacy of ergothioneine in multiple contexts. It has been demonstrated to reduce oxidative stress, one of the main mechanisms by which it maintains cellular health. Moreover, ergothioneine has been found to mediate inflammatory markers, which can further protect cells from damage and degeneration. These regulating properties, coupled with its antioxidant capabilities, highlight its potential for protecting not just individual cells, but entire systems within the body, including the cardiovascular and neurological systems. 

The biological activity of ergothioneine is not merely limited to its antioxidant capabilities. Research is also exploring its role in modulating cellular signaling pathways and gene expression, which can have implications for long-term health and disease prevention. The multi-faceted roles of ergothioneine make it an intriguing subject for ongoing research, offering a promising avenue for therapies and supplements aimed at improving cellular, brain, and heart health. 

The potency, selectivity, and multi-system benefits of ergothioneine position it as a promising natural compound for health optimization. 

Ergothioneine: A Beneficial Addition to Your Diet 

The research suggests that ergothioneine could be a beneficial addition to the diet of individuals over 40. As we age, our bodies undergo various changes, and we can face health challenges like metabolic syndrome. Ergothioneine, with its antioxidant and cytoprotective properties, could be a powerful ally in maintaining our health and wellbeing during this phase of life. 

While we can obtain ergothioneine from our diet, particularly from mushrooms, supplementation could be an effective way to ensure we're getting enough of this potentially beneficial compound. As always, it's important to discuss any new supplements with your healthcare provider to ensure they're right for you. 



  1. Breakthrough in bio-based production of longevity vitamin, ergothioneine. (n.d.). Retrieved November 17, 2023, from https://www.nature.com/articles/d42473-020-00227-4 
  2. Cheah, I. K., Feng, L., Tang, R. M. Y., Lim, K. H. C., & Halliwell, B. (2016). Ergothioneine levels in an elderly population decrease with age and incidence of cognitive decline; a risk factor for neurodegeneration? Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 478(1), 162–167. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2016.07.074 
  3. Cheah, I. K., & Halliwell, B. (2012). Ergothioneine; antioxidant potential, physiological function and role in disease. Biochimica Et Biophysica Acta, 1822(5), 784–793. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbadis.2011.09.017 
  4. D’Onofrio, N., Servillo, L., Giovane, A., Casale, R., Vitiello, M., Marfella, R., Paolisso, G., & Balestrieri, M. L. (2016). Ergothioneine oxidation in the protection against high-glucose induced endothelial senescence: Involvement of SIRT1 and SIRT6. Free Radical Biology & Medicine, 96, 211–222. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2016.04.013 
  5. Gründemann, D., Harlfinger, S., Golz, S., Geerts, A., Lazar, A., Berkels, R., Jung, N., Rubbert, A., & Schömig, E. (2005). Discovery of the ergothioneine transporter. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 102(14), 5256–5261. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0408624102 
  6. Grundy, S. M., Cleeman, J. I., Daniels, S. R., Donato, K. A., Eckel, R. H., Franklin, B. A., Gordon, D. J., Krauss, R. M., Savage, P. J., Smith, S. C., Spertus, J. A., Costa, F., American Heart Association, & National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. (2005). Diagnosis and management of the metabolic syndrome: An american heart association/national heart, lung, and blood institute scientific statement. Circulation, 112(17), 2735–2752. https://doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.105.169404 
  7. Halliwell, B., Cheah, I. K., & Drum, C. L. (2016). Ergothioneine, an adaptive antioxidant for the protection of injured tissues? A hypothesis. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 470(2), 245–250. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2015.12.124 
  8. Kalaras, M. D., Richie, J. P., Calcagnotto, A., & Beelman, R. B. (2017). Mushrooms: A rich source of the antioxidants ergothioneine and glutathione. Food Chemistry, 233, 429–433. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2017.04.109 
  9. Kim, J. I., Kim, J., Jang, H.-S., Noh, M. R., Lipschutz, J. H., & Park, K. M. (2013). Reduction of oxidative stress during recovery accelerates normalization of primary cilia length that is altered after ischemic injury in murine kidneys. American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology, 304(10), F1283-1294. https://doi.org/10.1152/ajprenal.00427.2012 
  10. Paul, B. D., & Snyder, S. H. (2010). The unusual amino acid L-ergothioneine is a physiologic cytoprotectant. Cell Death and Differentiation, 17(7), 1134–1140. https://doi.org/10.1038/cdd.2009.163 
  11. Roberts, C. K., & Sindhu, K. K. (2009). Oxidative stress and metabolic syndrome. Life Sciences, 84(21), 705–712. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lfs.2009.02.026 
  12. Tian, X., Cioccoloni, G., Sier, J. H., Naseem, K. M., Thorne, J. L., & Moore, J. B. (2021). Ergothioneine supplementation in people with metabolic syndrome (Ergms): Protocol for a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study. Pilot and Feasibility Studies, 7(1), 193. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40814-021-00929-6 
  13. Tian, X., Thorne, J. L., & Moore, J. B. (2023). Ergothioneine: An underrecognised dietary micronutrient required for healthy ageing? British Journal of Nutrition, 129(1), 104–114. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0007114522003592 
  14. Whittemore, K., Vera, E., Martínez-Nevado, E., Sanpera, C., & Blasco, M. A. (2019). Telomere shortening rate predicts species life span. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 116(30), 15122–15127. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1902452116 


Older post Newer post