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Brains, spinal cords, nerve roots, nerves and muscle tissues were removed from deer in southern New York State and examined for histologic evidence of infection by the causative agent of
Lyme disease, Borrelia burgdorferi. There was no histologic evidence of this infection and only four of 26 deer had serologic evidence of past infection despite the fact that all were parasitized by the tick vector, Ixodes dammini. Of these ticks, 21% were carrying B. burgdorferi. In contrast, most of the deer had choroid plexitis. All but one of 48 deer tested were infected with Trypanosoma cervi, 20 of 24 deer had sarcocystis in skeletal muscles and two had dural lesions probably due to the nematode Pneumostrongylus tenuis. The causal relationship between choroid plexitis and trypanosomiasis is discussed.