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Clinical manifestations and diagnosis of neuroborreliosis.

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Lyme borreliosis has in a few years turned out to be a health problem not only in the United States, but also in many European countries. When it affects the nervous system,
Lyme borreliosis acts as the great
disease imitator. Because of this characteristic it is often difficult to diagnose on clinical grounds. Patients with neuroborreliosis might appear within all medical disciplines. Clinical markers, such as preceding tick bite and/or ECM, are important clues to the diagnosis. Mononuclear pleocytosis and elevated CSF protein are present in most patients with neuroborreliosis. Final evidence for the diagnosis is the demonstration of specific antibodies in serum and/or CSF. Measurement of antibody titers should be carried out in both serum and CSF, since these methods are complementary when trying to obtain a serological diagnosis of neuroborreliosis.

Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1988;539:46-55.

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