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Lyme disease prevention and vaccine prophylaxis.

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Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To provide a comprehensive review of the epidemiology, diagnosis, and prevention of
Lyme disease with a focus on the
Lyme disease vaccine.

DATA SOURCE:

A computerized search of MEDLINE (January 1996-December 1998) was used to identify articles regarding
Lyme disease, Borrelia burgdorferi, epidemiology, prevention, and vaccine.

DATA SYNTHESIS:

Lyme disease is a condition caused by infection with B. burgdorferi. The organism is carried by certain species of Ixodes ticks and is the most common tick-borne
disease in the US. In patients with clinical manifestations of
Lyme disease, various pharmacotherapeutic approaches have proven effective in treatment of the clinical features. Prevention strategies exist; however, their application is sometimes difficult. A vaccine for the prevention of
Lyme disease is available, and another is being considered for approval. The recombinant outer surface protein A (OspA) vaccines to prevent
Lyme disease are immunogenic and have an acceptable adverse effect profile. These vaccines are highly efficacious for the prevention of
Lyme disease.

CONCLUSIONS:

Lyme disease is the most common tick-borne
disease in the US. The infection, caused by B. burgdorferi, results in dermatologic, neurologic, cardiovascular, and musculoskeletal manifestations. Until recently, tick bite prevention strategies were the only means of decreasing the risk of acquiring the infection. The OspA vaccines are efficacious for the prevention of infection. Although universal immunization with these vaccines is unlikely, the availability of effective vaccines represents an important tool for the prevention of
Lyme disease in endemic regions of the US.

Ann Pharmacother. 1999 Jun;33(6):723-9. Review

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